Voici une recherche publiée en 2010 :
Much of the current research relating to informal employment lacks a nuanced understanding of how people subsist outside the normative employment system. Other than the illegal, underground economy which is not necessarily where panhandling and informal recycling fit, research tends to focus on the illegality of panhandling, or the nuisance aspects expressed by the public relating to binning. There is little focus on the lived experience of those involved, with the exception of work done by members of the geography department at University of Victoria (Gutberlet et al., 2007; Tremblay, 2009). As part of Phase 1 of the Calgary Homeless Foundation’s 10 year plan to end homelessness (Calgary Homeless Foundation, 2007), the following report addresses the lack of nuanced understanding by drawing on ethnographic research conducted between May and August, 2010.